Sourcing Tianmianjiang (Sweet Wheat Paste, 甜面酱)
Tianmianjiang, or the Glory of Sichuan’s Fermented Sauces
This unassuming little ingredient is way more powerful than it lets on. Called sweet wheat paste or sweet soybean paste, 甜面酱 (tiánmiànjiàng) is yet another member of the family of fantastically tasty and useful Asian bean sauces. Don’t even get me started on the glory of fermented bean pastes… other than to say my pantry and fridge include four kinds of Chinese bean sauces (sweet bean, chili bean, yellow bean and hoisin) as well as two kinds of Korean and two kinds of Japanese. And that’s not even counting Chinese black bean sauce, which itself is not fermented but is made from fermented soybeans, or douchi.
Several regions of China make a sweet wheat or sweet bean paste. I’m not sure exactly why they taste so similar and are interchangeable, since one is made by fermenting wheat and one by fermenting soybeans. But they are. Perhaps because the sweet bean sauces usually include wheat as an ingredient as well, though the sweet wheat sauces normally do not include beans, just wheat flour, water and salt.
These sauces are high-umami without being too salty, or too sweet either. The Sichuan tianmianjiang is very savory but only mildly sweet. It is used less frequently than doubanjiang, or chili bean paste, in Sichuan cooking. Most notably the two are used together in twice-cooked pork. However, sweet bean paste can stand on its own as a stir-fry base and is often used to sauce pork, as in stir-fried pork slivers with fermented flour paste. Another of the Chengdu Challenges I’ll be tackling from The Cookbooks will be flour-paste-flavored pork feet. Though I will probably not tackle quick-fried duck tongues with fermented flour paste. Because where would I get duck tongues in America?
It’s fairly easy to find sweet bean paste and even Sichuan-made sweet wheat paste in Chinese markets in the U.S. Pictured above are two brands of Sichuan tianmianjiang. On the right is the Juan Cheng brand, made by the Sichuan Pixian Douban Co., which is famous for its doubanjiang, being the largest and most well known brand of chili bean paste in Sichuan. The company’s tianmianjiang is also particularly good (and we carry it, now in resealable glass jar form!). The other Sichuan brand pictured above is made by Chengdu Guo Niang Food Co. What I love about the Sichuan brands is that they often come in these little packets of 10 grams, or about two teaspoons, which is the perfect size for one stir-fry.
A Great Fermented Alternative: Sweet Soybean Paste
If I can’t get a wheat sauce made in Sichuan, I buy Cong Ban Lu Soybean Paste, made by the Shandong-based Shinho company. This company touts its green approach and uses non-GMO soybeans in its bean sauces. It also makes my favorite Beijing/Shangdong-style yellow soybean paste, used to make Beijing’s famed zhajiang noodles, but that’s a whole different subject (not to be mistaken for Chengdu zajiang noodles). It’s a bit confusing shopping for sweet soybean paste because the English translation on various kinds of bean sauces often just says soybean paste. It’s best to look at the ingredients, which should include only soybeans, wheat, salt and no other flavorings. Also, the paste should be very dark brown and smooth. (Whatever you do, don’t confuse it with red bean paste, which also may be translated as sweet bean paste but is totally different.)
Cong Ban Lu’s bean sauces come in distinctive plastic tubs or in refill packets. I also recommend the company’s hoisin sauce, which, like sweet bean sauce, is made from fermented soybeans and wheat flour but which also includes additional flavorings like sesame and sugar. It’s a great alternative to the ubiquitous Lee Kum Kee hoisin, whose No. 1 ingredient is sugar. Hoisin should not be substituted for sweet flour paste in Sichuan cooking, however, because of the additional ingredients.
(Note: You can find Juan Cheng brand tianmianjiang online at our shop. And as of February 2022, we also sell our own new-to-the-U.S. but famous Guangdong-brand hoisin (the homeland of hoisin) by Guangweiyuan. It contains tomato and red yeast rice for its unique, natural reddish brown flavoring—no food coloring. Thanks Steph and Chris at Chinese Cooking Demystified for the recommendation!)
But then again, we’re only following the rules for the Chengdu Challenge. Outside of the challenge feel free to combine any and all of the bean sauces. I do, and usually to tasty effect.
A couple questions, if you don’t mind.
When it comes to Tian Mian Jiang, is the stuff called “Sweet Flour Sauce” made by Lian How Brand the same, or comparable? It’s ingredients are wheat flour, salt, and sodium benzoate, and nothing else. Here’s a link to what it looks like: https://www.asianfoodgrocer.com/lh-sweet-flour-sauce-8-oz
And in general, does this stuff need to be refrigerated after opening? Or is it okay on the shelf since it’s been fermented?
Thanks…I’ve been enjoying your site! 😉
That sounds like the stuff, but it is made in Japan so could taste quite different. I’m not sure about refrigeration, but I keep mine refrigerated and I’m sure it would keep longer that way.
Thanks for writing!
thanks, TY. great website for sourcing Sichuan products
Ok, thanks Taylor. FWIW, I kept mine out on the shelf for several weeks after opening and did not get poisoned…of course cooking it in a wok helps with that, but my guess is this stuff is likely okay out on the shelf if it’s in a cool place and you don’t live in a hot moist climate.
Nevertheless, I put mine in the fridge….because I can. Like you said, it’ll probably last longer. 😉
After further thought, you are no doubt correct. Douban ferments outside for years, so should be fine in our pantries!
Because where would I get duck tongues in America?
At the Grand Asia market in Cary, NC! I just saw a whole package of them, along with lamb “fries” (testicles) and a host of other meat that challenges American palates (intestinal bung, anyone?).
It’s so funny that you sent this, because just today I saw duck tongues in the Hawaii Supermarket in San Gabriel, CA. I must say I’m a little surprised to know they have them in Cary, but I’ll have to tell my mother-in-law, who lives nearby there. (Though I guess it’s pretty doubtful she’s going to want to try them.) 🙂
They are also on the menus of restaurants in the SGV, and on my list of must-trys!
I’ve seen duck tongues here in Pittsburgh, PA too! We just have maybe 4-5 Asian grocery stores here but they’re surprisingly well-stocked.
Great! It might be time for me to tackle that recipe.
Hi Taylor, could you please show nutritional informational for the products in your shop? It’s so hard to find that info for products online!
That’s a very reasonable request! I will try to add that info when I have time and formatting ability.
Would it be a mistake to substitute gochujang instead of this sauce? I realize there are other ingredients in gochujang , but it’s sweet rice malt so I thought it might make an alternative. Or would I be better just skipping the tian mian jian entirely in recipes that call for just a tbsp or two? Thanks!
Jim, I would not use gochujang in place of tian mian jiang, since gochujang is made mainly from chilies and is spicy and sweet. Tian mian jiang is not at all spicy and only slightly sweet, despite the name. The best substitute is hoisin, which is also made from fermented soy bean and wheat, though it has added spices and flavorings that tian mian jiang does not. Soy sauce would also be a decent substitute, though it is saltier than tian mian, so you’d need to adjust for that. Thanks for asking!